Posted by Bryan on Apr 6, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

In the treatment here it is believed that before entering the field, the spin is a free particle and displays the √2 states. It is this spin that starts off in the superposed states of the two orthogonal axes, that depend upon the LHV, |±,r=q,f>n1=±1. Note here there are four pure states: two associated with n1=+1 and two with n1=-1, which cannot be simultaneously measured. We measure either n1=+1 states or n1=-1, but not both simultaneously. Half are averaged away when measured.

Posted by Bryan on Mar 22, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

Space is now no longer isotropic in the presence of a measuring probe, and so the √2 spin cannot form, nor can the mirror states. Since the spin is oriented some way, one axis is going to be closer to the applied field than the other. That one lines up while the other axis spins in the plane perpendicular to the applied field,

Posted by Bryan on Mar 15, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

When I was a graduate student, and studying quantum mechanics, I came across a statement by Heisenberg which impressed me. We have no trouble visualizing the macroscopic world. It is our common environment and when someone throws a ball to you, you need no Newtonian mechanics to catch it. If you had to catch an electron, well you have no idea without some help. That is because an electron is part of the microscopic world, which is impossible for us to visualize without knowing the equations. This is where Heisenberg came in and said that the only way we can actually visualize the microscopic world is through understanding the...

Posted by Bryan on Mar 7, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

I have said that the √2 spin only exists when space is isotropic. However when interacting, say with other particles, although the √2 magnetic moment is destroyed, none-the-less the 2D structure remains and this actually removes entanglement from quantum theory!!

Posted by Bryan on Feb 13, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

The new algebra has two time variables and two spatial variables. The spatial variables give the 2D Dirac equation and finds the new spin operators as Lorentz Invariants. Besides the usual linear time, the new time is quite different, being a rotational or phase time. Since spin now has structure, it can precess relative to spins in different inertial frames. Hence it plays the same role for angular momentum that linear time plays for linear momentum.

Posted by Bryan on Jan 24, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

The book called The Black Swan by Nassim Nicholas Taleb finds many events are unpredictable and occur suddenly, and therefore have a large impact on our lives and thinking. All swans in Europe were white, leading to the paradigm that all swans are white. However the discovery of one black swan in Australia, changes all this leading to a new paradigm about swans. Black Swan events in history, geopolitics and science often occur ; they are unpredictable, they have a large impact, and they are usually only explained after the observation. Basically Taleb believes that our lack of knowledge is as important as our knowledge. If we know too much, then we make predictions which...

Posted by Bryan on Jan 18, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

One therefore has a choice. Accept usual spin that leads to entangled states and a non-local and indeterministic foundation of Nature. Alternately, you can choose the 2D structured spin which gives both a local and realistic view of Nature. Experimentally, the two cannot be distinguished and so the treatment here is not inconsistent with any experimental results.

Posted by Bryan on Jan 14, 2015 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

That is, these two states are reflections of each other, see the figure, The operation of reflection via P13 changes one state into its mirror image. This is exactly the property sort by Yang and Lee to solve the fact that parity is not conserved for the electro-weak force. Using their example, if cobalt atoms undergo beta decay, and you watch it in a mirror, then the magnetic moments are not reflected, and so parity is violated.

Posted by Bryan on Dec 6, 2014 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

But two times? The first is the usual linear time that differs in different inertial frames. The second is a rotational time which rotates in the plane of the 2D flat space. This is a phase time or a frequency and accounts for the different relative rotations of 2D objects in different inertial frames.

Posted by Bryan on Nov 30, 2014 in Quantum Mechanics Research |

In the next few posts, I am going to describe spin in an entirely different way. Immediately you should be skeptical and doubtful that spin could be anything else from its present description: a point particle of intrinsic angular momentum. Do an experiment: Stern-Gerlach; coincidence photons; delayed choice, then spin is observed to have two pure states and these are defined with respect to the laboratory frame of reference. Think of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In these experiments, spins align with magnetic fields and their polarizations are measured. In quantum mechanics, spin is postulated, but it arises naturally in quantum field theory from the Dirac...

Posted by Bryan on Nov 25, 2014 in A Local Realistic Reconciliation of the EPR paradox, Quantum Mechanics Research |

For many years now (since 2006) I have been studying spin 1/2 that has structure. People think the idea is crazy because spin is firmly established by the Dirac Equation. Recently I found that the two dimensional structured spin I have been advocating is just as firmly based in its own Dirac equation with a different algebra. I will come back to that later. Non-locality, going back to Isaac Newton, has always been unacceptable, at least until modern times. Instantaneous action-at-a-distance is physically unpalatable and always belies a deeper theory. So why does almost every physicist believe in it? To be clear, I do not suggest that Bell’s Theorem is wrong. Bell...

Posted by Bryan on Aug 30, 2013 in General Science, Physical Chemistry |

In one example I use bond energies to calculate the energy per mole of sucrose and TNT (the explosive trinitrotoluene). Most students expect that TNT has more energy, but it turns out the two have about the same. So why is TNT an explosive (actually a conflagration)? TNT burns rapidly and involves a huge volume change. It is the rate of reaction (chemical kinetics) and the rapid volume change that causes the explosive damage. Then I can move to the thermodynamics overview.