The book called The Black Swan by Nassim Nicholas Taleb finds many events are unpredictable and occur suddenly, and therefore have a large impact on our lives and thinking. All swans in Europe were white, leading to the paradigm that all swans are white. However the discovery of one black swan in Australia, changes all this leading to a new paradigm about swans. Black Swan events in history, geopolitics and science often occur ; they are unpredictable, they have a large impact, and they are usually only explained after the observation. Basically Taleb believes that our lack of knowledge is as important as our knowledge. If we know too much, then we make predictions which...
A. Logically Non-locality makes no sense.
Undeterred by rejection of EPR paper.
A Local Realistic Reconciliation of the EPR Paradox – Research Paper
Most recent articles
One therefore has a choice. Accept usual spin that leads to entangled states and a non-local and indeterministic foundation of Nature. Alternately, you can choose the 2D structured spin which gives both a local and realistic view of Nature. Experimentally, the two cannot be distinguished and so the treatment here is not inconsistent with any experimental results.
That is, these two states are reflections of each other, see the figure, The operation of reflection via P13 changes one state into its mirror image. This is exactly the property sort by Yang and Lee to solve the fact that parity is not conserved for the electro-weak force. Using their example, if cobalt atoms undergo beta decay, and you watch it in a mirror, then the magnetic moments are not reflected, and so parity is violated.
But two times? The first is the usual linear time that differs in different inertial frames. The second is a rotational time which rotates in the plane of the 2D flat space. This is a phase time or a frequency and accounts for the different relative rotations of 2D objects in different inertial frames.
In the next few posts, I am going to describe spin in an entirely different way. Immediately you should be skeptical and doubtful that spin could be anything else from its present description: a point particle of intrinsic angular momentum. Do an experiment: Stern-Gerlach; coincidence photons; delayed choice, then spin is observed to have two pure states and these are defined with respect to the laboratory frame of reference. Think of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). In these experiments, spins align with magnetic fields and their polarizations are measured. In quantum mechanics, spin is postulated, but it arises naturally in quantum field theory from the Dirac...
For many years now (since 2006) I have been studying spin 1/2 that has structure. People think the idea is crazy because spin is firmly established by the Dirac Equation. Recently I found that the two dimensional structured spin I have been advocating is just as firmly based in its own Dirac equation with a different algebra. I will come back to that later. Non-locality, going back to Isaac Newton, has always been unacceptable, at least until modern times. Instantaneous action-at-a-distance is physically unpalatable and always belies a deeper theory. So why does almost every physicist believe in it? To be clear, I do not suggest that Bell’s Theorem is wrong. Bell...
In one example I use bond energies to calculate the energy per mole of sucrose and TNT (the explosive trinitrotoluene). Most students expect that TNT has more energy, but it turns out the two have about the same. So why is TNT an explosive (actually a conflagration)? TNT burns rapidly and involves a huge volume change. It is the rate of reaction (chemical kinetics) and the rapid volume change that causes the explosive damage. Then I can move to the thermodynamics overview.
I am sure the reviewer is knowledgeable about the EPR paradox and the foundations of quantum mechanics but he missed or dismissed a departing point of my approach: quantum mechanics is a theory of measurement and I find states that exist only when not measured. These undetected states account for the quantum correlation usually attributed to non-locality. Although the reviewer’s comments are easily answered, I was not allowed a rebuttal:
When I start into heat capacity I contrast the temperature of a substance with the feeling of hot and cold. A thermometer will tell you the temperature of a substance, but that does not tell you how much heat is present. If you touch something, you can tell if it is hotter or colder than your hand, but what about two substances at the same temperature?
Suppose outside it is -10 C (14 F) and there you find a piece of steel and a piece of Styrofoam. Which is colder? If you touch the steel it feels colder than the Styrofoam, but they are both at the same temperature. If you placed the steel on the Styrofoam, no heat will flow between them (Third Law of thermodynamics). Since your hand is much hotter than the objects, heat must flow from your hand into them.
Although the obvious “pro” of recording is to give students the chance to listen numerous times; review the material; and listen to missed lectures, there is a huge “con” and that is they skip class and opt to listen to my lectures at home. Last year the attendance dropped to half because lectures are available on line, but this year the time has been shifted to 8:30 a.m. from 10:30. I am going to predict that very few will want to attend at that hour.
Thermo does take time to become familiar and I try many ways to get these ideas over. I think that it helps some when I tell them that when I was a student taking thermo, I failed my first midterm.
One question I pose every year to my physical chemistry class of life science students in the first lecture is “Where is chemical energy stored?” Almost all of them say in chemical bonds. Ask how the energy is released, and they say “When bonds are broken.”